One of dozens of world leaders attending World War I commemorations in France this weekend, Trump tweeted after landing in Paris that Macron's call for a "real European army" was "insulting".
Macron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who on Saturday poignantly visited the forest clearing in northeastern France where the Armistice was signed, had signalled beforehand that they meant to use the Paris ceremony to warn about the modern-day danger of nationalism.
The world leaders were pictured standing side by side in the rain at the Arc de Triomphe to pay tribute to those who died in the First World War, 100 years to the day since the guns fell silent.
"The lesson of the Great War can not be that of resentment between peoples, nor should the past be forgotten", he said, sorrow etched on the faces of former French soldiers standing to attention around him.
Ceremonies in New Zealand and Australia marked the start of the November 11 memorial events across the world, and huge crowds paid tribute to the more than 80,000 servicemen and women who gave their lives in the Great War.
French President Emmanuel Macron admitted on Sunday that the European nations have so far failed to provide a viable alternative to the USA dollar, and are excessively dependent on the American currency. I love our country", he said, adding: "You have nationalists.
The Russian president is hoping his personal ties with Trump, who regularly touts their good relationship, will at some point yield a softening of the US approach to his country.
The 90-minute commemoration included the reading by children of letters written by German, French and British soldiers during the war, a recital by cellist Yo-Yo Ma and a moving performance of Maurice Ravel's Bolero.
After the ceremony, Macron hosted a lunch for the heads of state and government joining the ceremony.
The White House press secretary, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, said the leaders discussed a "variety of issues", including the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - which Trump has threatened to withdraw from - as well as North Korea and Syria.
Last month Trump sparked concerns globally when he said he would ditch the INF pact, as Putin warned that abandoning the treaty would unleash a new arms race and put Europe in danger. Other topics, in addition to the ones listed by the French, were trade, sanctions, Afghanistan and China, she said.
Up to 1,500 anti-Trump protesters held a demonstration at Place de la Republique square in eastern Paris on Sunday, at which the giant "Baby Blimp" balloon depicting the USA president as an infant was flown, following previous appearances in London and NY.
The visit made clear that, almost two years after taking office, Mr Trump has dramatically upended decades of American foreign policy posture, shaking allies. He pulled out of a similar ceremony east of Paris on Saturday due to the weather. A Kremlin official said later that US and Russian officials made a decision to drop plans for the Paris meeting after French officials objected. They turned the tide of the war. History sometimes threatens to take its tragic course again and compromise our hope of peace.
Solemn ceremonies took place around the world Sunday to mark 100 years to the day since the Armistice that saw the end of World War I.
On Sunday afternoon Mr Macron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel attended a peace conference - the Paris Peace Forum - with leaders including Mr Putin and Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan.