The climate expert said: "Although the report's estimations are slightly fuzzy, you have to accept to actually meet the target of 1.5 Celsius is very tough and will require very rapid action". Billed in the media as "life changing", the report illustrates how crossing the ever-nearer threshold of 1.5℃ warming will affect the planet, and how hard it will be to avoid overshooting this target.
Mark Howden, head of the Australian National University's Climate Change Institute, said emitting the equivalent of about 420 billions of carbon dioxide would exhaust the remaining carbon budget to cap warming at 1.5 degrees. In the U.S., which has the world's largest economic coal resource, the Trump administration has had a hard time fighting to save coal.
But the report warns that "the effectiveness of such techniques are unproven at large scale and some may carry significant risks for sustainable development". Unfortunately, the conclusions are grim, with many impacts looking close to what we used to associate with a 2.0 degree rise.
As the IPCC points out, a price on carbon emissions is also imperative to slowing climate change.
Decades ago, Congress refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, which represented the first step toward meaningful worldwide action on climate in 1992.
In 2016 they were nearly twice that. It contains the stories of 13 communities fighting on the frontlines of climate change: from young Pacific Islanders trying to stop the Adani mega-mine to fishermen communities in Africa battling against new coal plants; from the struggle to stop a big gas pipeline among the olive groves of Southern Italy to the landowners and Native Americans putting solar panels on the route of the Keystone XL pipeline.
Ramanathan said the report also takes solid research, such as his finding that 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming could be reached by 2030 to 2035, and downplays it in favor of being overly cautious. That change has contributed to sea level rise, the melting of Arctic sea ice, coral bleaching of ocean reefs and ocean acidification. The IPCC says that emissions need to decline by at least 40 percent by 2030, and to reach net zero by 2050, if we are to hold warming to one more degree.
Added Mr. Endalew: "This I.P.C.C. report confirms that loss and damage resulting from climate change will only worsen with further warming with much greater losses at 2°C than at 1.5°C".
The raison d'etre of the Paris Agreement is a need to keep a global average temperature rise this century well below 2 deg C and to strive to limit the temperature increase even further lower to 1.5 deg C above pre-industrial levels of later part of 18th century.
The United Nations (UN) has reeled out unprecedented changes humanity must make to avoid extinction from catastrophic climate change in twelve years. That makes the company the fourth major United States coal supplier to file for bankruptcy in recent years due to the significant decline in coal use. "Trump has rejected the 2015 Paris agreement signed by 195 nations to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, expressed skepticism about human-caused climate change and vowed to increase coal-burning". We want to have developed, tested and be practicing the shovel-ready solutions that others will look for when they are also ready to act.
"This is one of the most important reports ever produced by the IPCC, and certainly one of the most needed", Hoesung Lee, the chair of the body, said at a press conference in South Korea on Monday.