Papadopoulos, the first campaign aide sentenced in special counsel Robert Mueller's ongoing investigation, acknowledged that his actions hindered an investigation of national importance, a move that the judge in his case said resulted in the 31-year-old putting his own self-interest above that of his country.
Twelve Russian intelligence officers were indicted by a federal grand jury on July 13, accused of hacking Democratic Party computer networks in 2016, in the most detailed USA accusation yet that Moscow meddled in the presidential election to help Trump.
The professor told Papadopoulos the Russians had "dirt" on Mr Trump's Democratic presidential rival Hillary Clinton in the form of "thousands of emails".
Three other campaign officials - chairman Paul Manafort, deputy campaign manager Rick Gates and national security adviser Michael Flynn - either have pleaded guilty or been convicted of various crimes but none of the trio has yet been sentenced.
He also received a year of supervision, 200 hours of community service, and a $9,500 fine. In court papers filed ahead of the sentencing, prosecutors say those lies caused irreparable harm to the investigation during its early months.
But the attorney said "the president of the United States hindered this investigation more than Papadopoulos ever could".
Attorneys for Papadopoulos had sought to avoid prison, instead requesting probation.
Out of the 35 people and entities so far charged, Papadopoulos is one of five who have pleaded guilty and the second to be sentenced.
Former Donald Trump presidential campaign foreign policy adviser George Papadopoulos arrives at court with his wife Simona Mangiante.
George Papadopoulos, 31, pleaded guilty previous year to lying to the Federal Bureau of Investigation to hide his contacts with Russians and Russian intermediaries during the presidential campaign.
"I wanted to distance myself as much as possible - and Trump himself and the campaign - from what was probably an illegal action or risky information", he said.
Papadapoulos is blamed for part of the reason the investigation into Russian collusion began because he bragged about his interactions with Russian intermediaries to an Australian diplomat after a night of heavy drinking.
"It was at best begrudging efforts to cooperate and we don't think they were substantial or significant in any regard", he said.
Before the sentence was read, Papadopoulos' defense attorney, Thomas Breen, pointed fingers at Trump.
"I saw him sitting in one picture at a table with me, that's the only thing I know about him", Trump said, referring to a widely circulated photo of Papadopoulos in a meeting with Trump and several other advisers.
"We were hoping for no jail time but two weeks is OK", Maria Stamatopoulos said.