Iran is a key ally of the Syrian government, alongside Russian Federation.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said the Jewish state remains "steadfast" in preventing Iranian aggression amid ongoing threats.
Russian President Vladimir Putin expects common sense to prevail amid the current global tensions, as he himself said at a ceremony to receive credentials from foreign ambassadors on Wednesday.
The statement by Netanyahu comes just days after Israel purportedly carried out an airstrike against a Syrian military base where Iran is also operating.
The Israeli strikes reportedly targeted an "advanced system" that could undermine Israel's air superiority in Lebanese and Syrian airspace, according to Hadashot TV.
Netanyahu, for his part, said then that Israel would continue to counter Iran's efforts to build up its military presence in the war-torn country. Both countries are allied with the Assad regime, which has been endeavoring to quell an uprising since 2011 and is estimated to have killed as many as 700,000 Syrians. The attack came after reports that Syria used chemical weapons in an attack on civilians.
While Russia, Iran and Syria have accused Israel of carrying out the pre-dawn attack, Tel Aviv has refused to comment.
Israel is believed to have carried out numerous raids inside Syria since 2013.
The news of the telephone call between Netanyahu and Putin appeared as Netanyahu took the stage in Israel's main Holocaust memorial event and issued a threat to Iran not to "test Israel's resolve". Some 2,000 USA troops have been assisting rebel factions aligned with the West. Netanyahu fears that a US retreat from the conflict will allow Iran to expand its influence.