Discoveries From Juno: Massive Cyclones Spotted Beneath Jupiter's Surface

Juno is finding weird things in Jupiter's vast cyclone clusters

NASA spies fierce cyclone dance on Jupiter

"Jupiter's atmosphere is many times greater than anything we have seen before", said Kaspi, who analyzed measurements from NASA's Juno spacecraft to reveal that the planet's stripes extend to a depth of about 3,000 km. Before you get to this layer of Jupiter, however, there is a whopping 3,000 kilometers of atmosphere - those swirling bands of clouds that can be seen from the surface. Refined measurements of Jupiter's uneven gravity field enabled the Weizmann Institute of Science's Yohai Kaspi in Rehovot, Israel, and his colleagues to calculate the depth of the jet streams at about 1,865 miles.

The recent things uncovered are part of a four-article collection on Juno science results published in the journal Nature.

'Until now, we only had a superficial understanding of them and have been able to relate these stripes to cloud features along Jupiter's jets. - AFP picThe findings were the result of unparalleled measurements of Jupiter's gravity field by Juno, in orbit around the closest gas giant to Earth since July 2016. The scientists say that the findings will improve our understanding of the interior structure of Jupiter, core mass, and its origins.

Other observations included a rash of massive cyclones at the planet's poles, the likes of which have not been observed on any other Solar System planet.

"But the Juno data has now provided evidence that there are north-south asymmetries in the gravity field of the gas giant". As these jets flow in bands from east to west or west to east, they disrupt the even distribution of mass on the planet. But according to rumor, Saturn is different in a very specific way-its dynamic weather appears to extend much deeper into the planet than Jupiter's, just as predicted.

Another Juno result released today suggests that beneath the weather layer, the planet rotates almost as a rigid body.

"This is really an awesome result, and future measurements by Juno will help us understand how the transition works between the weather layer and the rigid body below", said lead author of the paper on Jupiter's deep interior, Tristan Guillot.

The fifth planet from our sun, gas giant Jupiter is by far the largest planet in our solar system.

NASA's Juno mission has come up with significant information about the planet.

JIRAM probes the weather layer down to 50 to 70 kilometres below Jupiter's cloud tops. "Flows are associated to density variations, pretty much as winds on Earth are caused by high and low pressure areas". That is quite a bit deeper than previous estimates, and is revising scientists' picture of Jupiter's atmosphere as well as its inner layers. "We used this radio link between Juno and Earth to measure the velocity of the spacecraft to exquisite accuracy-to 0.01 millimeter per second or better", Iess says.

They also didn't expect the cyclones to be so close together and so symmetrical.

"Each one of the northern cyclones is nearly as wide as the distance between Naples, Italy and New York City - and the southern ones are even larger than that". All cyclones lasted for seven months. Scientists thought they'd find something similar to the six-sided cloud system spinning over Saturn's north pole.

"These astonishing science results are yet another example of Jupiter's curve balls, and a testimony to the value of exploring the unknown from a new perspective with next-generation instruments".

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