The ANC, in a statement released shortly after the vote, said that the result was "a resounding defeat of the motion of no confidence in President Zuma and our cabinet" and that "the biggest victor of today's event is our constitutional dispensation".
Ahead of the vote, all but one of parliament's 12 opposition parties had urged ANC MPs to vote against Mr Zuma for his "continued irrational‚ irresponsible and reckless leadership".
However, senior ANC leaders and most analysts believed the president would survive the vote given the party's large parliamentary majority. While most opposition parties appear united in the cause to remove the president, there are about five opposition votes that are uncertain or even unlikely to support it.
Widespread frustration over Zuma has hurt the ANC, the former liberation movement of Nelson Mandela that has led South Africa since the end of white minority rule and the first all-race elections in 1994.
If parliament recalls him on Tuesday, ending a presidency scheduled to run until 2019, he will still remain ANC head until December. "We have never doubted... this motion was never about President Jacob Zuma, it was about collapsing government".
On Wednesday, Maimane said the vote was historic because of the number of ANC MPs who had defied the party line, but the fact that the ANC had again opted to protect Zuma meant the time was ripe to call for early elections.
The UDM, DA and EFF asked Mbete to schedule a motion of no confidence in Zuma, with the UDM later asking her to prescribe a secret ballot.
Its no-confidence motion said Zuma had "lost all sense of rationality and sound judgment", harming the country's poorest citizens.
However, only 30 ANC MPs voted for Zuma to be removed.
"We have got to get rid of this man before he destroys everything that we have all worked so hard for", said another protester, Anne Shirley.
The ANC holds a majority of the 400 parliament seats, and the party has repeatedly said its members will not support the opposition-led attempt to unseat the president.
On Tuesday, Zuma survived the eighth motion of no confidence in him.
DA chief whip John Steenhuisen added, "We are the official opposition in South Africa".
He has been accused of being in the sway of the Gupta business family, allegedly granting them influence over government appointments, contracts and state-owned businesses.
He also stated that he was not going to resign and that since the MPs have failed through parliament to remove him, the only viable option was for the ruling Africa National Congress (ANC) to fire him.